This report presents the conclusions and policy recommendations of EFFACE. They are based on earlier research done in EFFACE, which included legal analysis, data analysis, various case studies, and an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of the current approach of the EU to combating environmental crime.
Nine different policy areas were selected for the SWOT analysis. Based on the results of the SWOT analysis and a discussion of these results among the EFFACE partners, an in-depth analysis of possible policy options was made for each of the nine areas. Those reports constitute the basis for the current recommendations which are addressed at both EU level and Member State policy makers. The report distinguishes between core and supplementary recommendations. In addition to these recommendations, questions for further research are identified.
EFFACE prepared reports on each of the nine areas where policy recommendations were deemed most pertinent:
- Data and information management
- Further harmonisation of substantive environmental criminal law at EU level
- System of sanctions (administrative vs. criminal vs. civil proceedings
- Functioning of enforcement institutions and cooperation between them
- Role of environmental crime victims and civil society
- External dimension of environmental crime – what can EU do
- Use of environmental liability
- Organised environmental crime
- Corporate responsibility and liability in relation to environmental crime
These reports constitute the basis for the overall conclusions and recommendations. Draft conclusions and recommendations were discussed with stakeholders at a workshop in October 2015 and the EFFACE final conference in February 2016 in Brussels.