This paper considers three EU policy mechanisms which have the potential to reduce incentives for illegal exploitation of forest resources in producer countries: the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR), CITES and anti-money laundering legislation. Looking at four EU countries (the Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and two producer countries (Ghana and Indonesia) it describes sanctions regimes and enforcement efforts, and identifies opportunities for improved cooperation by national and EU agencies. While the available data is limited, the paper finds that enforcement has been reasonably successful given the early stage of implementation. There are some synergies between EUTR and CITES, whereas anti-money laundering legislation is not generally relied on to address environmental crimes. The paper finds significant variance between enforcement systems in the EU member states, and concludes that European Commission leadership is essential to establishing the consistency necessary for effective enforcement in the EU market. With regard to the issue of environmental crime generally, the paper concludes that in the case studies, ‘criminalization’ of environmentally harmful activities has primarily been guided by the nature of the sanctions considered necessary to address the problem in question.