This case study looks at illegal localised pollution incidents within the EU. The inclusion of this case study in the EFFACE project provides an example of smaller scale, localised crime to set within the wider EFFACE context. Since this environmental crime occurs at a local level, it is not possible within the case study to provide a complete picture for the whole EU; nevertheless, a limited number of sources are investigated that provide a broad impression of the number of such incidents across the EU, as well as the incidence of illegal landfilling in all EU Member States.
The main part of the case study focuses on the issue of fly-tipping/illegal waste dumping, with a specific focus on the UK and Ireland. Relatively limited amounts of data (given lack of availability) are presented on the number, type and quantity of waste, and location of fly-tipping incidents. In addition, data that was found on the number and type of actions (including successful prosecutions) taken against identified fly-tippers is also presented.
A short summary of waste-related legislation and instruments in the UK and Ireland is provided, to give some context for the case study. Attempts are made to identify the key causes, impacts, costs and victims of local pollution incidents. In addition, the available law enforcement responses and their effectiveness are addressed. The final section looks at potential options for tackling fly-tipping/illegal waste dumping, including some consideration of types of action that may be appropriate at the EU level.